Text of Review for Last Test of 2012
What Supreme Court decision made segregation legal?
Plessy v. Ferguson
What organization, founded by WEB Dubois, fought school segregation in the courts?
Give an example of a Jim Crow Law.
separate facilities, curfews, separate workplaces
How did WWII serve as a catalyst for the Civil Rights Movement?
blacks fought and died for U.S. then came home to discrimination
Why was it such a big deal that Jackie Robinson played baseball?
it was America’s past time, everybody paid attention
What decision reversed Plessy?
Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS)
Who was chosen to lead the Montgomery Bus boycott?
What was the key principle of his strategy to end segregation?
Martin Luther King Jr.
non-violence/passive resistance (from Gandhi & Thoreau)
What organization was founded by King & other ministers in 1957?
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
How did President Eisenhower support the integration of Central High School in Little Rock?
Sent in National Guard troops to keep the peace and protect the students
What was SNCC? What was their first big action in the movement?
The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, Sit Ins at segregated lunch counters (1960)
What was the goal of the Freedom Riders (1961)? What challenges did they face?
Integrate bus terminals and take the movement to the deep South; faced bombings, beatings, arrests, etc.
Why was JFK reluctant to fully support the Freedom Riders?
He was afraid of America looking bad on the world scene (Cold War tension with the Soviets, didn’t want bad publicity)
Why was Birmingham (AL) Police Commissioner Bull Connor so infamous?
Symbol of white resistance and oppression; ordered use of police dogs & fire hoses on protestors in Birmingham
What did the SCLC do to expose Bull Connor’s tactics in 1963? What happened to MLK there?
Marches in Birmingham, he was put in jail where he wrote “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” saying he would be an “extremist in the cause of morality”
What was the purpose of the March on Washington in 1963? What famous speech was given there?
pressure for Civil Rights Legislation, MLK’s “I Have a Dream” speech
What legislation came out of this pressure?
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965
What was the focus of the 1964 Mississippi Summer Project? Was it successful?
increase # of black voters in Mississippi in order to boost political participation; yes
Give an example of a Black Separatist Organization. Where was separatism & militancy more rampant among blacks?
Black Panthers, Nation of Islam
More rampant in Northern Cities
What did Malcolm X say blacks should reject? Embrace?
self hatred imposed on them by white culture; the beauty and strength of their Black culture
Name two demands of the Black Panthers.
full employment, self determination, blacks should not serve in Vietnam, decent housing, better education
Who fled the inner cities for the suburbs after WWII? What did they take with them?
middle class whites; tax dollars needed for social services – which left inner cities in tough shape
Name two places riots broke out in response to poor conditions in the cities.
Watts (1965) Newark and Detroit (1967)
What was the SCLC’s final campaign under the direction of MLK?
Poor People’s Campaign – focused on poverty and working conditions of poor (working on this when he was assassinated)
What was John Kennedy’s plan for America called? What were two of its major goals?
New Frontier, reinvigorate the United States & continue the triumph of capitalism Space Race (NASA, Peace Corps, Civil Rights)
What was Lyndon Johnson’s plan for the United States called? What were two of its goals?
Great Society, eliminate poverty, improve civil rights & provide health care (we got Medicare, Medicaid, Civil Rights Legislation and AFDC out of this)
What was AIM? What were two of their demands?
American Indian Movement; treaties upheld, original land back, better education, equal rights
What was NOW? What were two issues they focused on?
National Organization for Women, equal pay, equal rights, sexual discrimination in the work place
What union focused on improving wages and working conditions for Latino farm workers? Who was it’s leader?
United Farm Workers (UFW); Cesar Chavez
Who did the Vietnamese originally fight for their independence after WWII? Who led their fight for independence and became leader of North Vietnam?
France; Ho Chi Minh
Who did the U.S. install as the leader of South Vietnam in the late 1950s? How was he received by the South Vietnamese?
Ngo Dinh Diem, poorly – much protest (monks immolating themselves)
What theory proposed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, the rest of SE Asia would soon follow?
What were the southern sympathizers of the communist North called? Were they easy to identify?
Viet Cong or NLF; no – there was no sure way to identify them
What act of Congress gave LBJ the power to “use any means necessary” in Vietnam in 1964?
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Which president oversaw our escalation of the conflict? Who’s policies was he following?
What program was started to win over the hearts and minds of the South Vietnamese and clear rural areas of VC?
Why did the US decide to defoliate the jungles of Vietnam? How did they do it?
To try and take away the guerilla warfare advantage enjoyed by the VC; napalm & agent orange
List two ways combat conditions in Vietnam were unlike those soldiers had prepared for.
jungle, traps & guerrilla tactics, heat & rain, unknown enemy
What impact did the 1968 Tet Offensive have on public opinion about the war? Why?
turned many against it, showed that the VC and North Vietnamese were still strong and willing to fight
Why were there huge anti-war protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention? What were the protest leaders called?
After Robert Kennedy was assassinated anti-war people feared the ongoing escalation of the war; Chicago 7
What goal did Nixon claim to be pursuing in the Vietnam War?
Peace with Honor
What was “vietnamization”?
Nixon’s plan for turning the war over to the South Vietnamese
Name one factor that made our involvement in Vietnam so controversial.
Question of just cause, high cost ($ & lives), impatience with lack of progress, it was all there on TV
What effect did the draft have on public support for the Vietnam War? Name two ways people tried to avoid the draft.
The draft led to increased protest against the war; go to college, start a family, self inflicted wound, act crazy, or flee to Canada after you got drafted
What event immediately preceded the fall of South Vietnam? What was the fate of many South Vietnamese families who supported the U.S.?
full withdrawal of U.S. troops, became refugees
What was the name of the quiet group that wanted law & order & supported the war?
Who were the Hawks? Who were the Doves?
Americans who supported the war, Americans who opposed it
What minority groups were over-represented in the troops in Vietnam?
Blacks and Hispanics
What brought an end to draft deferments for students and married people in 1969? How did this effect the war protest movement?
draft lottery; ramped up protest movement
What documents, printed in the NY Times in 1971, exposed the truth about U.S. plans for Vietnam?
Why did the U.S. attack Cambodia and Laos in 1970? What was the response in the United States?
there were bases for the VC and NVA, massive protests (students killed at Kent State & Jackson State)
What did the 26th Amendment do? Who did this favor in the election of 1972?
Lowered voting age to 18, George McGovern (he was an anti-war candidate favored by the young)
What tactic did Nixon use to try and force the Vietnamese to the bargaining table?
increased bombing, especially the Christmas bombings of 1972
What two powerful nations did Nixon visit to play against each other in the early 1970s?
China and the USSR
What were the two main planks of Nixon’s platform in 1968?
law & order and an honorable peace in Vietnam
Who gets power returned to them under Nixon’s “New Federalism”?
What is détente?
the lessening of Cold War tensions between the U.S. & Soviet Union in the 1970s
What product did we sell to the Soviets in an effort to improve relations during the 1970s?
What treaties between the U.S. & USSR helped reduce the number of ICBMs and other strategic weapons?
SALT I & II
Who kept the Watergate story hot in the press during 1972 and increased public pressure for the investigation?
Woodward & Bernstein
What did Alexander Butterfield reveal to Ervin’s Senate committee in 6/73?
that Nixon taped his conversations
What was the Saturday Night Massacre? How did it make Nixon look?
Nixon fired two people in the justice department before he found one to fire Cox, guilty
Why did Nixon eventually decide to release transcripts of the tapes? How did they make him look?
thought they would clear him, foul mouthed & evil
How did Watergate change the way Americans viewed the Presidency?
lost faith in the office
Who took over for Spiro Agnew as Vice President? Why did Agnew resign?
Gerald Ford, Agnew took bribes when he was governor of Maryland
Which of Ford’s early actions shocked the nation?
pardon of Nixon for Watergate
What is OPEC? How did they start an energy crisis in the U.S. in 1973?
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, embargo on oil (Arab-Israeli War)
What did the “Steel Belt” become in the late 1970s? Why?
Rust Belt; plant closings, layoffs, towns shutting down (U.S. economy did not respond well to oil shortages)
What is stagflation? When did it hit the U.S.?
a combination of inflation and a stagnant economy, late-1970s
What were two key attributes that helped Jimmy Carter get elected President in 1976?
Open & honest, Washington outsider, humble background
Identify one way in which Carter tried to demonstrate he was a man of the people.
walked down PA Ave after inauguration, no heat in White House, meet with all kinds of Americans
What was Carter’s biggest foreign policy triumph?
Camp David Accords (1977 peace agreement between Israel and Egypt)
Identify an action taken by Carter early in his Presidency that was controversial with many Americans.
Gave amnesty to draft dodgers, turned canal back over to Panama
Why did Iranian students take U.S. embassy personnel hostage in 1979?
wanted Shah returned to Iran for trial
What did followers of the Ayatollah Khomeini call the U.S.? Why?
the Great Satan, believed Western influence was corrupting their nation (& Islam)
Identify two ways that Carter responded the the 1979 Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan.
grain embargo, ended SALT talks, boycotted 1980 Olympics in Moscow
Identify three of the major problems Carter faced in his effort to get re-elected in 1980.
Afghanistan, Iran Hostage Crisis, Bad Economy & Energy Crisis
What 1980 presidential candidate promised to restore pride and prestige to the presidency and the country?
How did Reagan try to bring about the downfall of the USSR?
huge military buildup – “spend the Soviets to their graves”
Who was favored by the policy of Reaganomics? How?
upper class Americans; they received tax cuts and then were supposed to spend & invest more to benefit the whole economy
What were three of the major social crises of the 1980’s?
Decline of the inner-cities, crack cocaine, AIDS
What were the key issues dividing liberals and conservatives in the 1980’s? Why did Reagan play these issues up?
gun control, abortion, the death penalty, school prayer, the ERA; to win votes from Evangelical Christians
What were some of the key characteristics of the U.S.’ economy through the 1980’s?
growing technology sector, corporate raiders/speculation in real estate, junk bonds
What was congress’ position on funding the Nicaraguan Contras (who fought the socialist government) in 1983?
What was our gov’t hoping for help with from the Iranians in exchange for selling them weapons in the early 1980s? Where did the money go?
freeing our hostages in Lebanon; money went to fund Contras
Who was the scapegoat for the Iran Contra Affair?
Oliver North – Marine colonel who took full blame
Which one of Pres. H.W. Bush’s supreme court nominees brought the issue of sexual harassment to the country’s attention?
Who was Manuel Noriega?
the drug dealing dictator of Panama that Bush had to have captured and arrested
What was the Savings and Loan scandal of the late 1980’s?
several U.S. senators were protecting the interests of S&L chiefs who were losing big bucks – gov’t had to bail them out
What was Pres. H.W. Bush’s biggest foreign policy achievement? Why did some people criticize him for it?
Persian Gulf War, failure to completely remove Saddam Hussein from power
What kinds of issues did Bill Clinton focus his campaign on in the 1992 election? What third party candidate helped him by taking votes from Bush?
Economic (“It’s the economy, Stupid!”), Ross Perot
What were some of the big issues Clinton tried to take on right from the start of his presidency? What was public reaction?
Healthcare Reform and Gays in the Military; issues were controversial and public opinion turned against him
What significant change took place in Congress after the 1994 Midterm Elections?
A “Republican Revolution” based on their “Contract With America” (backlash against Clinton)
Identify two of the scandals Clinton faced during his Presidency? What action did Congress take against him?
Whitewater, Paula Jones, Monica Lewinsky; House Impeached him (Senate found him not guilty in 1999)
What two issues were hotly debated in CA during the 1990s (there were ballot props passed on each of them)?
Illegal Immigration (187) and Affirmative Action (209)
What sector drove the booming economy of the late 1990s?
technology (initial growth of the internet – every one thought internet commerce would explode)
How did the 2000 Presidential Election finally end?
The Supreme Court ordered an end to the Florida recounts, which made W. Bush the winner of FL and therefore the election
Prior to 9/11/01, what were some of George W. Bush’s priorities?
deregulation, education reform, tax cuts for upper classes & corporations
Identify at least two of the major changes, other than War, that came about following 9/11.
Patriot Act (limits on civil liberties), TSA, Guantanamo Prison
What was the primary reason for going to war in Afghanistan after 9/11?
It was seen as the breeding ground for Islamic extremism and anti-American terrorists
Why did we go to war in Iraq in March, 2003?
Bush Administration was convinced they had a stockpile of WMDs they were prepared to use against the U.S., grew impatient with UN inspectors